An unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) is an aircraft without a human pilot onboard and a type of unmanned vehicle. In the past, the development of UAV systems and platforms were primarily motivated by military goals and applications. The core missions of the UAV use are reconnaissance “the activity to obtain by visual or other detection methods information about what is present or happening at some point or in some area” and surveillance “the systematic observation of aerospace, surface or subsurface areas, places persons or thing by visual, aural, electronic, photographic or other means”. The importance of a research is to convert the drone data taken from the drone sensors into actionable business insights. Respond to these problems, the long-term goal of the research is to develop the (UAV) to be a full function of the applications such as Surveying and Mapping on the construction sites, monitoring the forest (forestry). The objectives of this project are to provide the design method of a Fixed Wing UAV horizontal landing and to design a flight controller of the fixed-wing UAV in both manual and autopilot modes.
In this research, MATLAB Aircraft Intuitive Design (AID) is used for predicting fixed-wing aircraft stability and control to get the design model and aerodynamics coefficients. A CAD software has been used for designing the structure of fixed-wing UAV. To reach the objective of designing the flight controller, mathematical modeling of the aircraft is described, and its linearization is also included. Then, we analyze the trim condition of the state-space of the linearized model. For flight controller designing, we consider both manual and autopilot mode.
In the manual control design, we use the joystick signal to command the input parameters. The autopilot controller is dividing into two systems, latera/directional autopilot and longitudinal autopilot. The longitudinal autopilot is following the state machine algorithm which is dividing into four zones such as takeoff zone, climbing zone, altitude holding zone, and descending zone. Lateral and longitudinal control are designed separately using single input single output analysis tool. In manual control mode, the output signals were used to compare with the reference signals. There are two conditions of this testing. First is the reference signals taking from the gyroscope sensor and second is the reference signals taking from the transmitter. The result of the first condition implied that the reference signals and the output signal are the same in the condition of the inverse direction of the roll signal and pitch signal. The result of the second condition showed that the output signals and the reference signals are the same except the yaw signals in the condition of the inverse direction. In the autopilot control mode, after tuning the controller parameter, we can notice that the results from the simulation asymptotically reach to the desired command. Based on these results, the overall conclusion can be made that the modeling of the manual control architecture is suitable for deploy into the microcontroller (PIHAWK PX4), the control architecture of the autopilot is divided into two systems lateral/directional autopilot and longitudinal autopilot. These two control systems use the PID controllers which are shown for this application.
The UAV structure is designed using CAD software and simulation.
3D Print Part
Filament (PLA): using as the frame rib of the wing, fuselage and the control surface.
Foam (Polystyrene): using as the wing and body frame of the aircraft.